THE ETHIOPIAN SURI: WHERE A MAN MUST FIGHT TO WIN HIS WIFE - Welcome to My Woven Words

THE ETHIOPIAN SURI: WHERE A MAN MUST FIGHT TO WIN HIS WIFE


What is the best way to find a wife? There are a lot of variants. But one of the most unusual is a naked fighting ritual in Ethiopia.
That’s one way to find a wife! Imagine the tribesmen in Southern Ethiopia taking part in the dangerous naked fighting ritual.


Members of the Suri tribe are involved in the 'Donga,' or naked stick fighting ritual to impress a mate.
It is very dangerous for fighters wearing little or no clothing or protection. The naked fighting can result in bloodshed - and even death.
The tribe's way of life is under threat with new pressures on the Omo river, especially following the completion of the Gibe III dam - Africa's third largest hydroelectric plants.

SURI LIFESTYLE
Suri villages range between 40 and 2,500 people. Village decisions are made by an assembly of the men, though women make their views known in advance of the debates. Village discussions are led by elders and the komoru - a ritual chief. The korumus all come from the same clan and are chosen by consensus.
Each household is run by a woman. The women have their own fields and dispose of the proceeds as they wish. Money they make from selling beer and grain can be used to buy goats, which they then trade for cattle.


The men of the village are divided by 'age-set': children, young men (tegay), junior elders (rora) and senior elders (bara). Each set has its role. Children start helping with the cattle when they're about eight years old. The tegay age-set are unmarried and not yet known as warriors. They do the herding and earn the right to become young elders by their stick fighting and care of the cattle. Initiation ceremonies for those moving into the next age-set only happen every 20 or 30 years. The initiation ritual for the group becoming rora is particularly violent; the candidates are insulted by the elders, given menial tasks, starved and sometimes even whipped until they bleed.
Cattle are enormously important to the Suri. They bring status; when two Suri meet they'll ask each other how many cows they have. Cows are a store of wealth to be traded, and a source of milk and blood. Bleeding a cow is more efficient than slaughtering it for meat, and blood can be drawn during the dry season when there's less milk. An animal can be bled once a month, from the jugular.
The animals aren't generally sold or killed for meat, though they are slaughtered for certain ceremonies. They are treated with reverence. Fires are lit to keep them warm and to protect against insect bites, they are covered with ash. Every boy is given a young bull to look after, and his friends call him the name of his bull. The Suri sing songs in praise of their cattle, and mourn them when they die.


The average man owns between 30 and 40 cows. In order to marry, he needs about 60 cows to give to his wife's family. Suri men will fight to the death to protect their herd, and some risk their lives to steal from other tribes.
As well as cattle, the Suri trade. In the 1980s they smuggled automatic weapons from Sudan.

These days, the Suri are used to tourists visiting their villages but they have a very low opinion of their behaviour. It's offensive, for instance, that people take pictures without asking permission and the Suri insist on being paid a fee. 'They must be people who don't know how to behave,' one Suri told an anthropologist. 'Do they want us to be their children, or what? This photography business comes from your country. Give us a car and we'll go and take pictures of you.'
The Suri have some extremely painful rituals, including lip plates, scarification and dangerous stickfighting. Some anthropologists see these as a kind of controlled violence to get young Suris used to feeling pain and seeing blood. These are, after all, people who live in a volatile, hostile world, under constant threat from their enemies around them.


No one knows why lip plates were first used. One theory goes that it was meant to discourage slavers from taking the women. It's undoubtedly painful. Once a girl reaches a certain age, her lower incisors are knocked out and her bottom lip is pierced and stretched until it can hold the clay plate.
'We get a stick and make a hole', explains Nabala, the wife of Bruce's host. 'Then we gradually make the hole bigger.... My lip was cut a long time ago. My brothers and father made me get it done. Without a lip plate I wouldn't get married, and they'd get no cattle. My lip is big, Dongaley's is smaller. My lip plate is worth 60 cattle. Hers is worth 40.' A few girls are beginning to refuse to have a lip plate.
As well as lip plates, the girls of the village mark their bodies permanently by scarification. The skin is lifted with a thorn then sliced with a razor blade, leaving a flap of skin which will eventually scar. The men, meanwhile, scar their bodies to show they've killed someone from an enemy tribe. There are particular meanings assigned to these scars. One group, for instance, cuts a horseshoe shape on their right arm to indicate they've killed a man, and on their left if for a woman.
When it comes to religious beliefs, the Suri have a sky god, Tuma, an abstract divine force. There is no real veneration of the earth or earth spirits.

THE STICK FIGHT COMPETITION (DONGA/ZAGNE)


A sport and ritual the Suri take extremely seriously is stick fighting. It’s said to be one of the fiercest competitions on the entire African continent. Here among Ethiopia’s Surma   tribe, the Donga, Stick Fight takes place in the name of love in most cases, stick fighting is done so young men can prove their masculinity and to find wives. It is a way for young men to prove themselves to the young women. This ritual is called Donga or Zagne. Donga is both the name of the sport and the stick they use for the fight. Stick fight is central in Suri culture. In most cases, stick fight is a way for warriors to find girlfriends, it can also be a way to settle conflicts. On these occasion men show their courage, their virility and their resistance to pain, to the young women.


The fights are held between Suri villages, and begin with 20 to 30 people on each side, and can end up with hundreds of warriors involved. Suri are famous for stick fighting, but they are not the only ones to respect such a custom, as the neighbor tribe, the Mursi were also practicing these traditional fights. But Nowadays because of unknown reason the Mursi stop the tradition of stick fight.
The day before the Zagnei, fighters have to pure themselves. They do it by drinking a special preparation, called Dokai, which is made of the bark of a special tree, which is   mixed with water. After taking it, warriors make themselves vomiting the drink. The water is supposed to bring with it many of the body’s impurities. After this ritual they don’t eat until the following morning. Warriors walk kilometers to come fighting at Zagnei, which takes place in a clearing. They stop when crossing a river in order to wash themselves, before decorating their bodies for the fight.


Some years ago the Ethiopian Federal government tried to ban most of the ‘harmful customs’ all over the country in different tribal people, such as cattle-raiding, lip plates and stick-fighting in Surma, but effort ended without any result.
They decorate themselves by sliding the fingers full of clay on the warrior’s bodies. This dressing up and decoration is meant to show their beauty and virility and thus catch the women’s attention. The phallic shape ending the sticks contributes to that virile demonstration.
Fighters arrive on the Donga field all together, carrying the strongest man, dancing and singing. Some fighters wear colorful headdresses sometimes with feathers on it, and also knee-protectors. But most of them use no protection at all and fight completely naked in order to show their bravery. They also wear strings of decorative colored beads around their necks given by the girls and waist, but their genitals are most of the time uncovered and they are barefoot.


All of them get a chance to fight one on one, against someone from the other side. In the beginning each fighter looks for an opponent of the same stature, and exchanges a few held back blows with him in order to test him. If both fighters feel they have found a match, they suddenly throw themselves into the fight, hitting ferocious fast strokes with their sticks. If one of the warriors knocked out or puts paid to his opponent, he immediately declares himself the winner. Zagne consists in qualifying rounds, each winner fighting the winner of a previous fight, until two finalists are left.
It is strictly forbidden to hit a man when he is down on the ground. During these fighting competition, there are referees present to make sure all rules are being followed. Many stick fights end within the first couple of hits. Nevertheless, the fights are really violent, and it is quite usual to see men bleeding. Stick fighting has proven to be dangerous because people have died from being hit in the stomach. Losing an eye or a leg during the fight is quite common, although it is strictly forbidden for a fighter to kill his opponent, and if a fighter gets killed during the fight, his opponent and all his family are banned from the village for life.

CONCLUSION
For the other locals, especially teenagers, Zagne is a great outing. Girls watch the fights, but it is also the occasion to check out the men, and to meet in order to chat or even gossip.


At the end of the fights, the winners point their phallic sticks in direction of the girls they want to date with, if the girl put a necklace around the stick, it means she is willing to date the champions.
Warriors are seen participating in the 'Donga,' or naked stick fight, which has traditionally been a way men impress women and find a wife.


They fight with little or no clothing, and the violent clashes sometimes result in death.
The clashes are usually between two villages, with fighters taking it in turns to face each other.
Large crowds gather to watch as the Ethiopian naked fighting.
They are usually held after the rains, and there are often 20 to 30 fighters on each side, with tribesmen taking it in turns to fight one-on-one.
Referees enforce a code of conduct - it is against the rules to hit someone while they are on the floor.


 References:
BBC Africa
answersafrica.com
http://www.adventureabyssinia.com
https://ask.naija.ng/culture/




By Johnson Okunade

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